ドルクン・エイサ来日英語資料

Current Human Rights Issues in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

Contents

1. Freedom of Expression

2. Restrictions on Religious Activities
3. ‘‘Bilingual Education’’ Policy
4. Anti-Extremism Regulations
5. Ordering Uyghur Students Abroad to Return
6. Re-Education Centers in East Turkestan (XUAR)
7. Travel Restrictions
8. Collection of DNA Samples
9. Forced Labor and Transferring Young Uyghur Women to Mainland
10. Imprisonment of Writers and Students
11. Health Care and Nuclear Testing

Uyghurs are a Turkic ethnic group who have now become minorities in their own homeland, East Turkestan (called the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region by China), which spans over 1.6 million square kilometers, making it the largest administrative division in China. More than 11 million Uyghurs – majority Muslim and ethnically and culturally similar to other Central Asian nations – live in East Turkestan (aka the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, XUAR).

Despite the Chinese government’s claim that the rapid economic and social development has created a harmonious, stable and satisfactory social environment, the Uyghurs have always had a troubled relationship with Chinese Communist Party (CCP) central government authorities. Facing a Beijing-Supported influx of Chinese migrants, harsh repression of political dissent, and limitations on the expression of their distinct identity, Uyghurs are struggling for cultural survival.
To help you better understand the urgency and scale of the human rights issues, we would like to provide a report about the intensifying human rights violations in the Uyghur region, including China’s most recent unlawful mass detention of the Uyghurs.

1. Freedom of Expression

The October 2015 annual report of the US Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC) states that Chinese officials introduced policies regulating some of the most personal expressions of Uyghur Muslims’ religious faith, including circumcisions, weddings, and funerals. Authorities adopted new regulations limiting the role of religion in education as well as parents’ ability to involve their children in religious activities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (CECC, 2017, p. 8). The report also indicated that Chinese authorities continue to harass, detain, and imprison democracy advocates who exercised their rights to freedom of speech, assembly, and demonstration (CECC, 2017, p. 55). Independent writers and blog administrators imprisoned or detained over the past few years in East Turkestan (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). Nurmuhemmet Yasin (PEN America, 2013) who sentenced 10 years imprisonment for writing an allegorical short story “Wild Pigeon,” probably died in jail. Ilham Tohti, an economist, had been conducting research on the relationship between Uyghurs and Han Chinese, is now serving a life sentence charges of separatism. He earned the Martin Ennals Awards in 2016 (Amnesty International, October 11, 2016).
It has been reported that central and regional officials placed strict restrictions on communication tools. Officials tightened the controls on cell phone use. Xinjiang authorities ordered residents to install a spyware application called Jingwang Weishi, (“Web Cleansing Guard”) on their cell phones in order to government to surveil their online activities, monitoring any “illegal religious” content (Oiwan Lam, 2017). The Chinese government also extensively censors the internet and access to virtual private networks (VPN) inside China, has also at times fought the filming of treaty body reviews and making them available via the internet. According to the news, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China said in a notice on its website that it is launching a nationwide clean-up campaign aimed at internet service providers, internet data centers, and content delivery network companies. The ministry said it was forbidden to create or rent communication channels, including VPNs, without governmental approval, to run cross-border operations (Sijia Jiang, 2017). VPN is known to be used for access some social media websites like Facebook and Twitter, which are restricted in China. VPNs are likely listed among “terrorist equipment” in Xinjiang (Qiao Long, 2016). According to RFA, police in XUAR’s Changji city detained a man for allegedly “downloading violent and terrorist circumvention software” on Oct. 13 last year, indicating the serious consequences of using VPNs in East Turkestan (Qiao Long, 2016).
2. Restrictions on Religious Activities
In 2017, Chinese Communist Party continued to restrict the already limited space for expression, religious activity, and peaceful assembly. Restrictions on religious freedom are intensifying, particularly in the East Turkestan (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) and Tibetan autonomous areas. Authorities adopted new regulations limiting the role of religion in education as well as parents’ ability to involve their children in religious activities. The regulations also banned Islamic dress, including veils and ‘‘irregular’’ beards, and prohibited parents from naming their children any of a list of dozens of ‘‘Islamic’’ names deemed ‘‘extremist.’’ Families who failed to comply with the name prohibition risked denial of household registration (hukou) for their newborns, thereby restricting their access to social services such as education and healthcare. Later reports indicated that the name prohibition was extended to include anyone up to the age of 16 (CECC, 2017, p 8).
In East Turkestan (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region) region, Chinese authorities also ordered ethnic minority Muslim families to hand in religious items including prayer mats and copies of the Quran to the authorities, according to RFA news (Qiao Long, 2017).
The government restricts religious practice to five officially recognized religions and only in officially approved religious premises. The government retains control over religious personnel appointments, publications, finances, and seminary applications. President Xi gave a major speech on religion, during which he warned against “overseas infiltrations through religious means,” and called on religions to “Sinicize” or “adopt Chinese characteristics” (HRW, 2017).
In 2016 Beijing issued a white paper, Freedom of Religious Belief in East Turkestan (Xinjiang), that alleged the government protects “normal” religious activities and respects citizens’ religious needs and customs. Just days later, however, the government once again imposed its annual ban on the observance of Ramadan; authorities prevented government employees, students, and children from fasting, and in some cases praying, during Ramadan. As of November 1, 2016, Uyghur Muslim parents are forbidden from including their children in any religious activity, and citizens are encouraged to inform authorities about their neighbors who may be involved in government-prohibited activities. Authorities continue to restrict men from wearing beards and women from wearing headscarves and face-covering veils. According to reports, in 2016 the Chinese government destroyed thousands of mosques in East Turkestan (Xinjiang), purportedly because the buildings were considered a threat to public safety (USCIRF, 2017, p.34).
3. ‘‘Bilingual Education’’ Policy
July 2017 education Department issued a directive requiring full instruction in Mandarin beginning in preschool and banning the use of Uyghur in all educational activities and management, threatening punishment if the directive is not followed ( UHRP ○1, 2017).
Under ‘‘bilingual education,’’ class instruction takes place primarily in Mandarin Chinese, largely replacing instruction in languages spoken by ethnic minority groups. In June 2017, education officials in Hotan prefecture, XUAR, banned the use of the Uyghur language in schools through the secondary school level, ‘‘in order to strengthen elementary and middle/high school bilingual education.’’ The ban includes a prohibition on Uyghur-language signage on school grounds, as well as the use of Uyghur in schools’ public activities and educational management work. In March 2017, state media announced that authorities would strengthen preschool ‘‘bilingual education’’ in the XUAR by building or expanding a total of 4,387 ‘‘bilingual kindergartens’’ and hiring 10,000 ‘‘bilingual teachers’’ in 2017 (CECC, 2017, p.55).
These measures are the most restrictive language policies in the regional education system to date and indicate the policy to move all Uyghur children into the “bilingual” education system is accelerating. Despite its name, “bilingual” education is effectively monolingual through its provision of classes in the Mandarin language. The program undermines key parts of the Uyghur people’s cultural distinctiveness and facilitates the assimilation of Uyghurs into Han culture.
WUC has been alarming that this marginalization of the Uyghur language will lead to the end of formal education for Uyghur students in their own language.
China has laws protecting the use of minority languages, including in the education system. Article 4 of the Chinese constitution protects the freedom of minorities to use their own language, and Article 37 of the Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law states that schools in autonomous regions should use the ethnic language as the primary medium of instruction.
International human rights instruments also outline standards on ethnic minority rights to receive an education in their own language. These include Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 4 of the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, and Article 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The Chinese government should realize that its efforts to undermine important facets of Uyghur identity will not solve the underlying issues of marginalization and inequality and even should respect both its own laws and the principles of international law protecting the right for minorities to educate their children in their own language.
4. Anti-Extremism Regulations
On March 29, 2017, the XUAR People’s Congress adopted the region’s first anti-extremism regulations (CLT, 2017). The regulations categorize 15 actions as ‘‘extremism,’’ and according to a Chinese legal scholar, ‘‘[draw] a clear line between legal religion and illegal religion.’’ While the XUAR People’s Congress adopted regional measures in July 2016 to implement the PRC Counterterrorism Law that also described how authorities should work to counter religious extremists (CTL, 2016; Bai Tian, 2016), the 2017 regional regulations provide more detailed descriptions of the responsibilities of XUAR government authorities to eliminate ‘‘extremism’’ (Xinhua, 2017). Measures aimed at countering ‘‘extremism’’ in the XUAR in recent years reportedly have often threatened to criminalize Uyghurs’ peaceful practice of religious faith (UHRP, 2016).
We believe that these implementation guidelines for the national counter¬terrorism law will little to resolve the issues in East Turkestan (XUAR) region. Instead of addressing the problems of the economic marginalization of the Uyghur population, the repression of free religious practice and use of the Uyghur language as well as the increasing atmosphere of suspicion towards Uyghurs, the guidelines clearly indicate that authorities intend to continue and increase the militarization of the region.
5. Ordering Uyghur Students Abroad to Return
In the past few months, the Chinese government had ordered Uyghur students studying abroad (Shohret Hoshur○2, September 2017), including those in Egypt, to return home. There are reports that Chinese authorities have detained family members of these students to force them to come back. In August 2017, more than 100 have been detained in Egypt after failing to obey Chinese demands to return (Emily Feng, 2017). Some were students arrested and imprisoned after return. Buzainafu Abudourexiti, who returned to China in 2015 after studying for two years in Egypt, was suddenly detained in March 2017 and sentenced in a secret trial to seven years in prison (Amnesty International, 2017). Habibullah Tohti who was graduated with a PhD from Al-Azhar University arrested and sentenced to 10 years in prison by China, after he tried to find a job in Chinese education system (Shohret Hoshur○3, August 2017), and at least six other Uyghur students who traveled to Turkey for education purpose have jailed after returned to home, according to a relative of the region’s former Communist Party chairman, despite a probe that found the students had not committed any crimes (Shohret Hoshur○1, 2017).
China is seeking out and recalling members of its ethnic Uyghur minority population scattered across the globe. In the case of Egypt, Chinese authorities have relied on Egyptian security to seek out and round up ethnically Uyghur Chinese citizens in Cairo. Egyptian security personnel have detained dozens of ethnically Uyghur Chinese citizens, some of whom have already been repatriated to China. Many details remain unclear, including the legal residential or student status of some of the Uyghurs in Cairo. But the People’s Republic of China’s ability to demand the return of whole groups of minority citizens—without a clear and compelling case for their repatriation, and without any semblance of due process—should be worrying to the international community.
6. Re-Education Centers in East Turkestan (XUAR)
Perhaps, the most urgent issue today is the detention of thousands of Uyghurs in “re-education” centers (camps) in East Turkestan (XUAR). China is rounding up Uyghurs by the thousands for detention in “re-education” camps, or so called “political education centers.”
The camps are now formally referred to as “Professional Education Schools,” after being called “Socialism Training Schools” and other names since their early 2017 inception as “Counter-extremism Training Schools” (Eset Sulaiman○1, 2017).
Radio Free Asia has published and broadcast dozens of news reports on China’s “re-education” camps in East Turkestan (Xinjiang). According to reports, approximately 2000 of the 13,000 people in Korla city, and 4000 of the 30,500 in Karakash county have been detained, and at least 2000 people in Aktu county of Xinjiang (Eset Sulaiman○1, 2017). There might be many other “re-education centers” in other regions of East Turkestan (Xinjiang). Uyghurs have been detained in re-education camps for reasons such as traveling overseas, and are being forced to express their remorse over previous thoughts (Shohret Hoshur ○4, 2017).
Human Rights Watch (HRW) calls on the Chinese government to immediately free people held in unlawful “political education” centers in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and shut them down. HRW stated that the political education detention centers are contrary to China’s constitution and violate international human rights law. Article 37 of China’s Constitution states that all arrests must be approved either by the Procuratorate, the state prosecution, or the courts, yet neither agency appears to be involved with these detentions (HRW, 2017).
The Chinese authorities also launched a so-called “relatives’ week” program, which requires local mostly Han Chinese civil servants to spent a week with Uighur families in rural areas. Most are therefore total strangers, with different cultural and religious customs, and it is suspected that its main goal is surveillance (Joyce Huang, 2017) or dilute ethnic identity. The Chinese government has also intensified controls on religious activities. More than 38 million dollars invested on surveillance mosques and related area in Xinjiang (Josh Chin, Clément Bürge, 2017) and are converting Uyghur mosques into propaganda centers of communist party ( Kurban Niyaz ○1, 2017).
7. Travel Restrictions
As in past reporting years, XUAR officials continue to restrict Uyghurs’ ability to travel freely, in violation of Chinese law and international legal standards. Beginning in October 2016, authorities in locations throughout the XUAR reportedly ordered residents to turn their passports in to police, with varying deadlines of up to four months. Authorities subsequently required residents to seek approval from police for international travel in order to retrieve their passports (CECC, 2017, p.55).
Under new regulations implemented last fall, their ability to travel apparently is being restricted, with residents of western Xinjiang province required to hand over their passports to police for “collective management” (HRW, 2016), or “safekeeping.” Officials also restricting domestic travel activities by setting up check points on the roads, implementing harsher restrictions and security standards than Han Chinese (Jilil Kashgary, 2017). While many factors are certainly in play, further restrictions on the travel of Uyghurs seem likely to exacerbate feelings of frustration held by many Uyghurs.
8. Collection of DNA Samples
According to research conducted by Human Rights Watch (HRW) and reporting by the journal Nature, security personnel have been collecting DNA samples from Uyghurs in the XUAR and from other people throughout China on a massive scale, in many cases without consent. International observers have raised concerns that officials may misuse the collected biometric data to heighten security controls on the Uyghur population, as they build a database of citizens’ biometric information not limited to those with a criminal background, as in other countries, and lacking the kinds of legal safeguards other countries implement to manage their DNA databases (CECC, 2017, p.56).
The Chinese government is collecting “voice patterns” and “DNA samples” from Uyghurs in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and storing them in a biometric database. Human Rights Watch reported that China has already collected DNA samples from almost 40 million people and more than one billion faces for a nationally searchable database without oversight, transparency, or privacy protections (HRW, 2017). People in East Turkistan are forced to take part in so called “free medical examinations” while the results of those examinations are kept secret from the patients.
Collecting DNA should meet international privacy standards enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which China has signed but not ratified, a DNA collection and retention mechanism must be comprehensively regulated, narrow in scope, and proportionate to meeting a legitimate security goal.
9. Forced Labor and Transferring Young Uyghur Women to Mainland China
In many parts of East Turkestan (Xinjiang), Chinese government’s forced labor program still exists today. Especially in rural areas, Uyghurs face different kinds of labor violations aside from the employment discrimination that prevents them from seeking non-agricultural jobs. For example, in rural southern areas of East Turkestan (XUAR), forced labor is a common practice, in a government program called hashar in the Uyghur language. This program requires 4 to 11 hours a day of unpaid labor on public works projects, with strict penalties for non-participation, and represents a major violation of Uyghurs’ labor rights. Not only does the hashar program eliminate jobs that Uyghurs should be paid for, it also prevents them from performing their own agricultural work. Forced labor program violated not only international Covenant on civil and political rights, but also violated related Chinese laws as well (UHRP○2, 2017).
Chinese government is continuing to transfer young Uyghur women to Eastern China, for working in factories with low wages. The policy promoted as an overwhelmingly positive experience for women. Under the policy, thousands of Uyghur women have been removed from their families and placed into substandard working conditions thousands of miles from their homes (UHRP, 2008). At the same time that the PRC also provides support for the movement of large numbers of poor Han Chinese migrants to the East Turkestan, providing economic opportunities to them.
This transfer policy can be seen as another aspect of Beijing’s effort to forcibly assimilate the Uyghur people and undermine the distinct Uyghur culture of East Turkestan. Continuation of the policy will only further marginalize the Uyghur people and deepen Uyghurs’ mistrust of PRC officials, leading to even greater tensions in East Turkestan (Peng, M, 2017). Inequality and discrimination is the major sources of ethnic tensions in the region.
10. Imprisonment of Writers and Students
Chinese officials have detained and imprisoned Uyghur intellectuals, writers, webmasters and students, who were trying to express their thoughts about preserving cultural identity of Uyghurs, establishing understanding between Uyghurs and Han Chinese, and criticizing Chinese government’s hash policies in East Turkestan.
Ilham Tohti, a well-regarded ethnic Uyghur economist and peaceful critic of the Chinese government, was sentenced to life in prison by the Xinjiang People’s High Court for alleged “separatism” after a grossly unjust trial. He spoke passionately about how an independent legal system could ease abuses in the region. And perhaps most importantly, he helped Xinjiang-watchers inside and outside China understand developments there, and urged peaceful debate – not violence – among students, scholars, and others (Sophie Richardson, 2016).
Chinese security officials detained and arrested some students and intellectuals in the past few years, including Ilham Tohti’s students Perhat Halmurat, Shohret Tursun and Abdukeyum Ablimit (Mihray Abdilim, 2014), Mutellip Imin, Atikem Rozi, Ekber Imin (Edward Wong, 2014), on the charges of separatism and inciting ethnic hatred, for alleged work on the Uyghur-language news website Uyghur Online.
RFA’s Uyghur Service confirmed that at least five Uyghur web administrators and writers —Tursunjan Memet, Omerjan Hesen, Ababekri Muhtar, Akbarjan Eset, and an online writer (whose name could not be confirmed) were detained (Eset Sulaiman, 2016). Abdurehim Heyit, a prominent Uyghur musician, as arrested amid the “ideological purge” without official explanation by local authorities (Kurban Niyaz ○2, 2017).
11. Health Care and Nuclear Testing
Health care in East Turkestan for the Uyghurs is basic. In the majority of hospitals, there are no operating tables, gynecological equipment or disinfectant. At best, some antibiotics or TB medication are available. Almost all the doctors working in hospitals in East Turkestan are Chinese and do not speak Uyghur so cannot communicate with the Uyghur patients who in turn have difficulty explaining their problems. In recent years, cholera, leprosy, hepatitis, and HIV have become common medical problems.
Nuclear testing in East Turkestan over the past three decades continues to produce ecological disasters that pollute drinking water and food supplies, affect livestock and endanger human life. According to various sources in East Turkestan, babies with horrible deformities continue to be born. Tragically, the polluted districts bordering the nuclear test site still do not even receive elementary medical aid. No medical investigations in to the effects of the nuclear tests have been carried out (DBTIBET, 2012).
China made rapid progress and detonated its first nuclear bomb, codenamed ‘596′ in October 1964 in East Turkestan. From 1964-1996, 46 confirmed nuclear detonations have taken place at Lop Nor in East Turkestan, and 22 underground tests were undertaken, including thermonuclear blasts, neutron bombs and an atomic bomb. Urumqi, Turpan, Qumul and Korla are cities in East Turkestan with Uyghur populations that reside within 320 km from the test site. It is believed that nearly 190,000 people have died and at least 1.5 million people have been affected by radioactive material during the 32 years of nuclear tests at Lop Nor. The total amount of plutonium released in the atmosphere in East Turkestan is estimated to be 6 million times more than the Chernobyl accident, which affected one million people worldwide (the Tibet Post, 2012, Das, S, 2009).

Recommendations

The WUC strongly suggests that the following recommendations be implemented by the Chinese government and the international community.

To the Chinese government:
1. China must take all necessary steps to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights if the Chinese government wishes to be taken as a serious actor in international fora.

2. China must engage and respond substantively to UN Special Procedures, namely the Special Rapporteurs for Arbitrary Detention, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Freedom of Religion or Belief, and Protecting Human Rights while Countering Terrorism. China must allow for transparent and constructive visits by these representatives who can respond to the developing situation there.

3. China must provide public reports on high-risk detainee cases. The international community must be able to gain adequate information regarding detainees, particularly those who have been illegally returned from neighboring states. China must unconditionally release Ilham Tohti who has been baselessly accused of separatist crimes.

4. China must recognize the importance of human rights protections within the context of counter-terror campaigns and must abide by international standards.

5. China must immediately and substantially amend its National Anti-Terror law and Regional Implementation Measures for East Turkestan in line with international standards.

6. China must take immediate steps to ensure that Uyghurs are able to freely practice their faith and China must ensure that current policies that explicitly and implicitly link Islam to extremism and violence are reviewed and modified to reflect international law.

7. China must lift passport restrictions for those recently affected in East Turkestan. Passports and other travel documents must be returned to those wishing to travel within the region or out of the country within legal channels.

8. China must stop transferring Uyghur women to Eastern China and stop facilitating Han Chinese in-migration to East Turkestan in order to realize equality and stability in the region.

9. Chinese government also should take necessary measures to prevent disease caused by nuclear test, and provide free treatment for people who are affected by radiation.

To the International community:

1. Within additional bilateral relationships with the Chinese government, states must recognize the importance of human rights protection across China, and integrate human rights into economic and political dialogue.

2. States must demand that China participate whole-heartedly in its Human Rights Dialogue and engage with high level representatives to increase the legitimacy of the talks. Concrete progress on human rights must be stipulated. 

Sources

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https://www.amnesty.org/en/press-releases/2016/10/ilham-tohti-2016-martin-ennals-award-laureate-for-human-rights-defenders/
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[Xinjiang weiwu’er zizhiqu shishi ‘‘zhonghua renmin gongheguo fan kongbu zhuyi fa’’ banfa], issued 29 July 16, effective 1 August 2016, art. 40;
反恐怖主义法(草案)

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China's Xinjiang Residents Are Being Forced to Install Surveillance Apps on Mobile Phones

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http://docs.uyghuramerican.org/Transfer_uyghur_woman.pdf
• USCIRF – United States Commission On International Religious Freedom- Annual Report 2017
file:///C:/Users/mehmet/Downloads/2017.USCIRFAnnualReport.pdf
• Wong, Edward, New York Times, “3 Chinese Students, Missing for Months, Surface to Denounce Uighur Scholar”, September 26, 2014

• Xinhua, ‘‘Xinjiang Rolls Out China’s First Law To Purge Religious Extremism,’’ 30 March 2017.
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-03/30/c_136171744.htm

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